CNG Cascades are a group of cylinders that are interconnected by high-pressure piping to form a single gas storage unit. The high-pressure cylinders are arrayed in such a manner that they can supply CNG to other vehicles. In this system that rests on an iron structure, cylinders are placed at a defined distance from each other and fitted with ss tubes. Each of these cylinders is manufactured and tested as per stringent guidelines of PESO.
What are the types of CNG Cascades?
Type 1 Cascade
The type-1 cascade cylinders must be designed, constructed, and tested as per IS 7285 latest version or BS 5045: Part-1 or (U.S.) D.O.T. 3AA as confirmed by PESO. They can be used as stationary or mobile cascades to carry CNG. from mother station to daughter booster stations. Type 1 cascades are the heaviest, but their low cost has made them quite popular in India.
3000 WL cascade/ stationary cascades
The 3000 WL (water litre) Cascade is the most popular stationary Cascade at CNG. stations. It includes a bunch of 40 cylinders, all of which are 75 water litres. The robust design, manufacturing, and testing of the 3000 WL cascade make it very reliable.
4500 WL cascade/ mobile cascades
The 4500 WL (water litre) Cascade is the most commonly used mobile Cascade to carry CNG. from mother station to daughter booster stations. To store more CNG., they can also be used as stationary cascades. To fill and carry CNG. at 200 Bars with a gas density of 0.7 Kg/lts, it can store approx 630 Kgs of CNG. However, this quantity may vary from place to place.
Type 2 Cascade
Type 2 cascades are cylinders with metal linings that are comparatively lighter than type 1 cascades. They have partial wrapping to provide reinforcement to the cylinder. These wrappings are made of glass, or carbon, contained in resin. Using such non-metal lowers the weight of the Cascade. However, they make it expensive.
Type 3 Cascade
Type 3 cascades are metal cylinders that are lighter than type 1 cascades and can carry more quantities of CNG. Unlike type 2 Cascades, the exterior of type 3 Cascades are completely wrapped in composites. These composites can be of two types; one is full carbon composite, and another is with the mixing of carbon composite and glass fibre wrapping. These are compliant with NFPA 52 standards.
Type 4 Cascade
Type 4 cylinders are ultra-light with the capacity to store a maximum amount of CNG. They can potentially replace type-1 and type-3 cascades for mobile use. They can not be corroded and are the most expensive. However, prices of these cascades have been declining swiftly in an attempt to make them more cost-effective.
What are the regulations related to CNG Cascades?
Given below are the regulations related to CNG. cascade business as guided by PNGRB, PESO, I.R.C., and other bodies.
Gas requires up to 50000 SCMD to 1 MMSCMD can be serviced by Cascade.
CNG cascades cannot be detached from the vehicle that is transporting the gas.
CNG Stations should be open to the sky and cannot be housed in a closed room.
The CNG vehicles need a clearance area of 2m on all sides for a cascade of 4500lit water capacity, and 4m for a cascade containing 9000 lit of water capacity. Again, for a cascade of 17500 WL, the vehicles demand a clearance of 10 m.
The current regulation allows only type 1 and type 3 cascades to be employed by CGD companies.
What are the benefits of CNG Cascades?
The benefits of CNG cascade systems are as follows:
The cascade system permits small cylinders to be filled without a compressor.
During the long intermediate periods in which the storage cylinders need to be charged, a cascade system allows the filling of small cylinders in close succession with the help of even a low-capacity compressor.
In a cascade system, each cylinder is fitted with isolation valves and safety relief valves that ensure high safety while the CNG supply is made to the vehicles.
At PLS Automobile services, we provide the best-in-class services to our clients. We have more than 16 years of experience, and we take pride in saying that our team is highly qualified and trained for taking care of your vehicles. To know more about our service, you can contact us.